Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Latombe, J.-C. Robot Motion Planning 1991
Lenat, Douglas B. and Edward A. Feigenbaum On the Thresholds of Knowledge 1991 Expert Systems
Lovejoy, W. S. A survey of algorithmic methods for partially observed Markov decision processes 1991
McAllester, D. A. and Rosenblitt, D. Systematic nonlinear planning 1991 Planning & Scheduling
Muggleton, S. H. Inductive logic programming 1991
Myerson, R. Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict 1991
Papadimitriou, C. H. and Yannakakis, M. Shortest paths without a map 1991
Pearl, J. and Verma, T. A theory of inferred causation 1991
Pereira, F. and Wright, R. N. Finite-state approximation of phrase structure grammars 1991
Reiter, Ray The frame problem in the situation calculus: A simple solution (sometimes) and a completeness result for goal regression 1991
Rosenbloom, P. S., Laird, J. E., Newell, A. & McCarl, R. A preliminary analysis of the Soar architecture as a basis for general intelligence 1991 Systems & Languages
Russell, S. J. and Wefald, E. H. Do the Right Thing: Studies in Limited Rationality 1991
Russell, S., Wefald, E. Principles of Metareasoning 1991 Representation & Reasoning, Metareasoning
Samuelsson, C. and Rayner, M. Quantitative evaluation of explanation-based learning as an optimization tool for a large-scale natural language system 1991
Shahookar, K. and Mazumder, P. VLSI cell placement techniques 1991
Shavlik, J. W., Mooney, R., and Towell, G. G. Symbolic and neural learning algorithms: An experimental comparison 1991 Machine Learning, Neural Networks
Soderland, S. and Weld, D. S. Evaluating nonlinear planning 1991
Yip, K. M.-K. KAM: A System for Intelligently Guiding Numerical Experimentation by Computer 1991
Zhu, D. J. and Latombe, J.-C. New heuristic algorithms for efficient hierarchical path planning 1991 Planning & Scheduling
Allen, J. F., Hendler, J., and Tate, A. (Eds.) Readings in Planning 1990 Planning & Scheduling
Anantharaman,T., M. Campbell and F. Hsu Singular Extensions: Adding Selectivity to Brute-Force Searching 1990
Anderson, J. R. Development of expertise 1990 Nature of Expertise
Bacchus, F. Representing and reasoning with probabilistic knowledge: a logical approach to probabilities 1990 Representation & Reasoning, Uncertainty
Bisson, T. They're made out of meat 1990 SciFi Books & Authors
Boden, M. A. (Ed.) The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence 1990 Philosophy
Bridle, J. S. Probabilistic interpretation of feedforward classification network outputs, with relationships to statistical pattern recognition 1990 Neural Networks
Brown, P. F., et al. A statistical approach to machine translation 1990 Machine Translation
Cohen, P. R. and Levesque, H. J. Intention is choice with commitment 1990 Representation & Reasoning, Constraint-Based Reasoning
Cohen, P. R., Morgan, J., and Pollack, M. E. Intentions in Communication 1990
Cooper, G. The computational complexity of probabilistic inference using Bayesian belief networks 1990
Cormen, T. H., Leiserson, C. E., and Rivest, R. Introduction to Algorithms 1990
Cox, I. and Wilfong, G. T. (Eds.) Autonomous Robot Vehicles 1990 Autonomous Vehicles, Robot Planning & Action
Davis, Ernest Representations of Commonsense Knowledge 1990 Representation & Reasoning, Commonsense Reasoning
Dean, T., Basye, K., Chekaluk, R., and Hyun, S. Coping with uncertainty in a control system for navigation and exploration 1990
Dean, T., Firby, R. J., and Miller, D. Hierarchical planning involving deadlines, travel time, and resources 1990
Deerwester, S. C., Dumais, S. T., Landauer, T. K., Furnas, G. W., and Harshman, R. A. Indexing by latent semantic analysis 1990
Deng, X. and Papadimitriou, C. H. Exploring an unknown graph 1990
Drabble, B. Mission scheduling for spacecraft: Diaries of T-SCHED 1990
Fetzer, James Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits 1990 AI Overview
Fox, M. S. Constraint-guided scheduling: A short history of research at CMU 1990
Fuchs, J. J., Gasquet, A., Olalainty, B., and Currie, K. W. PlanERS-1: An expert planning system for generating spacecraft mission plans 1990
Geiger, D., Verma, T., and Pearl, J. Identifying independence in Bayesian networks 1990
Gero, John Design prototypes: a knowledge representation schema for design 1990 Design, Scripts & Frames
Ginsberg, M. L., Frank, M., Halpin, M. P., and Torrance, M. C. Search lessons learned from crossword puzzles 1990 Crossword Puzzles
Guha, R. V. and Lenat, D. B. CYC: A midterm report 1990 Commonsense Reasoning
Hald, A. A History of Probability and Statistics and Their Applications before 1750 1990
Halpern, J. Y. An analysis of first-order logics of probability 1990
Hammond, K. J. Explaining and repairing plans that fail 1990
Hansen, P. and Jaumard, B. Algorithms for the maximum satisfiability problem 1990
Hobbs, J. R. Literature and Cognition 1990