Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
MacKay, D. J. C. A practical Bayesian framework for back-propagation networks 1992
Mackworth, A. K. Constraint satisfaction 1992
Mackworth, Alan On Seeing Robots 1992 Robots, Robot Perception
McCune, W. Automated discovery of new axiomatizations of the left group and right group calculi 1992
Muggleton, S., R. King, and M. Sternberg Protein secondary structure prediction using logic-based machine learning 1992 Bioinformatics, Machine Learning
Nicholson, A. and Brady, J. M. The data association problem when monitoring robot vehicles using dynamic belief networks 1992
Norvig, P. Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp 1992 Systems & Languages, Programming Languages
Patrick, B. G., Almulla, M., and Newborn, M. An upper bound on the time complexity of iterative-deepening-A* 1992
Pemberton, J. C. and Korf, R. E. Incremental planning on graphs with cycles 1992
Penberthy, J. S. and Weld, D. S. UCPOP: A sound, complete, partial order planner for ADL 1992
Peot, M. and Smith, D. E. Conditional nonlinear planning 1992 Planning & Scheduling
Ruspini, E. H., Lowrance, J. D., and Strat, T. M. Understanding evidential reasoning 1992
Russell, S. J. Efficient memory-bounded search methods 1992
Searle, J. R. The Rediscovery of the Mind 1992
Stickel, M. E. A prolog technology theorem prover: a new exposition and implementation in prolog 1992
Stiller, L. KQNKRR 1992
Tate, A., Drabble. B. and Kirby, R. Spacecraft Command & Control Using AI Planning Techniques - The O-Plan2 Project, O-Plan Final 1992 Representation & Reasoning, Planning & Scheduling
Tesauro, G. Practical issues in temporal difference learning 1992
Thaler, R. The Winner’s Curse: Paradoxes and Anomalies of Economic Life 1992
Tomasi, C. and Kanade, T. Shape and motion from image streams under orthography: A factorization method 1992
Wellman, M. P. and Doyle, J. Modular utility representation for decision-theoretic planning 1992
Wellman, M. P., Breese, J. S., and Goldman, R. From knowledge bases to decision models 1992
Williams, R. J. Simple statistical gradient-following algorithms for connectionist reinforcement learning 1992 Neural Networks, Reinforcement Learning
Wos, L., Overbeek, R., Lusk, E., and Boyle, J. Automated Reasoning: Introduction and Applications 1992 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Ackley, D. H. and Littman, M. L. Interactions between learning and evolution 1991 Evolutionary Algorithms
Allen, J. F. Time and time again: The many ways to represent time 1991 Representation & Reasoning
Almuallim, H. and Dietterich, T. Learning with many irrelevant features 1991 Machine Learning
Borenstein, J. and Koren, Y. The vector field histogram—Fast obstacle avoidance for mobile robots 1991 Robot Perception
Brooks, R. A. Intelligence without representation 1991 Representation & Reasoning
Bundy, A., Robertson, D., Muetzelfeldt, R., Haggith, M. and Uschold, M. Eco-Logic: Logic-Based Approaches to Ecological Modelling 1991 Agriculture & Natural Resources, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Bundy, A., van Harmelen, F. and Hesketh, J. and Smaill, A. Experiments with Proof Plans for Induction 1991 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Cheeseman, P., Kanefsky, B., and Taylor, W. Where the really hard problems are 1991
Church, K. and Gale, W. A. A comparison of the enhanced Good–Turing and deleted estimation methods for estimating probabilities of English bigrams 1991
Corkill, D. D. Blackboard Systems 1991
Currie, K. and Tate, A. O-Plan: the Open Planning Architecture, 1991
Dean, T. and Wellman, M. P. Planning and Control 1991
Dennett, D. C. Consciousness Explained 1991
Dowty, D., Wall, R., and Peters, S. Introduction to Montague Semantics 1991
Doyle, J. and Patil, R. Two theses of knowledge representation: Language restrictions, taxonomic classification, and the utility of representation services 1991
Duffy, D. Principles of Automated Theorem Proving 1991
Falkenhainer, Brian, and Ken Forbus Compositional Modeling: Official: 1991
Forbus, Forbus, K.D., Whalley, P., Everett, J., Ureel, L., Brokowski, M., Baher CyclePad: An articulate virtual laboratory for engineering thermodynamics. 1991
Forbus, Ken, Paul Nielsen, Boi Faltings Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: The Clock Project Project: 1991
Fudenberg, D. and Tirole, J. Game theory 1991
Heckerman, D. Probabilistic Similarity Networks 1991 Representation & Reasoning, Bayesian Inference
Heckerman, D.E. and E. H. Shortliffe From Certainty Factors to Belief Networks 1991 Bayesian Inference, Uncertainty
Jouannaud, J.-P. and Kirchner, C. Solving equations in abstract algebras: A rule-based survey of unification 1991
Koenig, S. Optimal probabilistic and decision-theoretic planning using Markovian decision theory 1991
Kraus, S., Ephrati, E., and Lehmann, D. Negotiation in a non-cooperative environment 1991
Kuipers, Ben A Robot Exploration and Mapping Strategy 1991