Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Titlesort descending Year Topics
Weir, Sylvia, Action Perception 1974 Cognitive Science, Physiology of Perception & Motion
Dietterich, Tom Learning at the knowledge level 1986 Machine Learning
McCorduck, Pamela Machines Who Think 1979 AI Overview, History
Boole, George On a general method in analysis 1844 Philosophy, Representation & Reasoning, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Waltz, D.L., Understanding Line Drawings of Scenes with Shadows 1975 Vision, Image Understanding
Putnam, H. 'Degree of confirmation' and inductive logic 1963 Inductive Learning
Balzer, R. A 15 Year Perspective on automatic programming 1985 Automatic Programming, Software Engineering
Cooper, G. and Herskovits, E. A Bayesian method for the induction of probabilistic networks from data 1992
Charniak, E. and Goldman, R. A Bayesian model of plan recognition 1992 Bayesian Inference, Planning & Scheduling
Simon, H. A. A behavioral model of rational choice 1955 Nature of Expertise, Problem Solving, Uncertainty
Hull, C. L. A Behavioral System 1952 Cognitive Architectures
Hayes-Roth, B. A blackboard architecture for control 1985 Representation & Reasoning, Multi-Agent Systems, Systems & Languages, Problem-Independent Architectures
Mittman, B. A brief history of the computer chess tournaments: 1977 Chess
Charniak, E. A brief on case 1975 Natural Language, Grammars & Parsing
Taylor, B., and Rosenberg, R. S. A case-driven parser for natural language 1975 Natural Language, Grammars & Parsing
Good, I. J. A Causal Calculus (I) 1961 Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Pitrat, Jacques A Chess Combination Program Which Uses Plans 1977 Chess, Planning & Scheduling
Kotok, A. A chess playing program for the IBM 7090 1962 Chess, People, Programs, Institutions
Shannon, C. E. A chess-playing machine 1950 Chess
Berliner, H. J. A chronology of computer chess and its literature 1978 Chess
Kodratoff, Y. A class of functions synthesised from a finite number of examples and a LISP program scheme 1979 Applications, Software Engineering, Machine Learning, Inductive Learning
Hayes-Roth, B., and Hayes-Roth, F. A cognitive model of planning 1979 Cognitive Science, Representation & Reasoning, Multi-Agent Systems, Planning & Scheduling
Connell, J. A Colony Architecture for an Artificial Creature 1989
Nevatia, R. A color edge detector 1976
Rassenti, S., Smith, V., and Bulfin, R. A combinatorial auction mechanism for airport time slot allocation 1982
Shaw, J. C, Newell, A., Simon, H. A., and Ellis, T. O. A command structure for complex information processing 1958 Goals & Visions, Cognitive Architectures, Problem-Independent Architectures
Hovland, C. A communication analysis of concept learning 1952 Inductive Learning
Griffith, A. K. A comparison and evaluation of three machine learning procedures as applied to the game of checkers 1974 Checkers
de Kleer, J. A comparison of ATMS and CSP techniques 1989
Michie, D., J. G. Fleming & J. V. Oldfield A comparison of heuristic, interactive and unaided methods of solving a shortest-route problem 1968 Heuristic Search
Bobrow, D.G., and Bertram Raphael. A Comparison of List Processing Languages 1964 Systems & Languages, Programming Languages
Church, K. and Gale, W. A. A comparison of the enhanced Good–Turing and deleted estimation methods for estimating probabilities of English bigrams 1991
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language 1985
Canny, J. A computational approach to edge detection 1986 Vision
Boyer, R. S. and Moore, J. S. A Computational Logic 1979 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Kim, J. H. and Pearl, J. A computational model for combined causal and diagnostic reasoning in inference systems 1983
Martin, J. H. A Computational Model of Metaphor Interpretation 1990
Rennels ,G., E. H. Shortliffe, F. E. Stockdale, P. L. Miller A Computational Model of Reasoning from the Clinical Literature 1987 Natural Language Understanding, Case-Based Reasoning, Web & AI
Kjaerulff, U. A computational scheme for reasoning in dynamic probabilistic networks 1992
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. A computer algorithm for reconstructing a scene from two projections 1981
Gullahorn, J. and J.Gullahorn. A computer model of elementary social behavior 1963 Cognitive Science
Sussman, G. J. A computer model of skill acquisition 1975
Friedman, J. A computer model of transformational grammar 1971 Natural Language, Grammars & Parsing
Davis, M. A computer program for Presburger’s algorithm 1957 Science & Mathematics, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Thorp, E., and Walden, W. E. A computer-assisted study of Go on m X n boards 1970 Go
Davis, M. and Putnam, H. A computing procedure for quantification theory 1960 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Schank, Roger C. A Conceptual Dependency Representation for a Computer-Oriented Semantics 1969 Natural Language
Schank, Roger C. and Lawrence G. Tesler A Conceptual Parser for Natural Language. 1969 Grammars & Parsing, Natural Language Understanding
Kartam, N. A. and Levitt, R. E. A constraint-based approach to construction planning of multi-story buildings 1990
Murthy, C. and Russell, J. R. A constructive proof of Higman’s lemma 1990