Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authorssort descending Title Year Topics
Abelson, R.P. The structure of belief systems 1973 Cognitive Architectures
Abramson, B. and Yung, M. Divide and conquer under global constraints: A solution to the N-queens problem 1989 Constraint-Based Reasoning, Heuristic Search
Ackley, D. H. and Littman, M. L. Interactions between learning and evolution 1991 Evolutionary Algorithms
Adelson-Velsky, G. M., Arlazarov, V. L., and Donskoy, M. V. Some methods of controlling the tree search in chess programs 1975 Chess, Heuristic Search
Adelson-Velsky, G. M., Arlazarov, V. L., Bitman, A. R., Zhivotovsky, A. A., and Uskov, A. V. Programming a computer to play chess 1970 Chess, Heuristic Search
Agar, Michael, and Jerry R. Hobbs Interpreting Discourse: Coherence and the Analysis of Ethnographic Interviews 1982
Agin, G.J., and Binford, T.O. Computer description of curved objects 1973 Representation & Reasoning, Vision
Agmon, S. The relaxation method for linear inequalities 1954 Constraint-Based Reasoning, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Agre, P. E. and Chapman, D. Pengi: an implementation of a theory of activity 1987 Representation & Reasoning
Ahuja, Narendra and B. Schachter Pattern Models 1983 Image Understanding
Aikins, J. S. Prototypes and production rules: An approach to knowledge representation for hypothesis formation 1979 Rule-Based Reasoning, Scripts & Frames
Aikins, Janice C., John C. Kunz, Edward H. Shortliffe, and Robert J. Fallat PUFF: An Expert System for Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Data 1983 Applications, Medicine
Aizerman, M., Braverman, E., and Rozonoer, L. Theoretical foundations of the potential function method in pattern recognition learning 1964 Pattern Recognition
Akmajian, A., and Heny, F. An introduction to the principles of transformational syntax 1975 Grammars & Parsing
Albus, J. S. A new approach to manipulator control: The cerebellar model articulation controller 1975 Biologically-Inspired Robots
Allais, M. Le comportment de l’homme rationnel devant la risque: critique des postulats et axiomes de l’école Américaine 1953 Nature of Expertise, Uncertainty
Allen, J. F. Anatomy of LISP 1978 Programming Languages
Allen, J. F. Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals 1983 Representation & Reasoning
Allen, J. F. Time and time again: The many ways to represent time 1991 Representation & Reasoning
Allen, J. F. Towards a general theory of action and time 1984 Representation & Reasoning
Allen, J. F., and Perrault, C. R. Analyzing intention in utterances 1980 Discourse & Dialogue
Allen, J. F., Hendler, J., and Tate, A. (Eds.) Readings in Planning 1990 Planning & Scheduling
Allis, L. A knowledge-based approach to connect four 1988 Games & Puzzles
Almuallim, H. and Dietterich, T. Learning with many irrelevant features 1991 Machine Learning
Alterman, R. Adaptive planning 1988 Planning & Scheduling
Amarel, S. An approach to automatic theory formation 1960 Scientific Discovery
Amarel, S. An approach to heuristic problem-solving and theorem proving in the propositional calculus 1967 Automated Theorem Proving, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Amarel, S. On Representations of Problems of Reasoning about Actions 1968 Representation & Reasoning
Ambler, A.P. , H.G, Barrow, C M. Brown, R.H. Burstall, and R.J. Popplestone A Versatile Computer-Controlled Assembly System 1973 Manipulation & Locomotion, Robot Perception
Amit, D., Gutfreund, H., and Sompolinsky, H. Spin-glass models of neural networks 1985 Neural Networks
Anantharaman,T., M. Campbell and F. Hsu Singular Extensions: Adding Selectivity to Brute-Force Searching 1990
Andersen, S. K., Olesen, K. G., Jensen, F. V., and Jensen, F. HUGIN—A shell for building Bayesian belief universes for expert systems 1989 Bayesian Inference, Expert Systems
Anderson , John R. and Gordon H. Bower Human Associative Memory 1973 Cognitive Science
Anderson, J. R. Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications 1980 Cognitive Science
Anderson, J. R. Development of expertise 1990 Nature of Expertise
Anderson, J. R. The Architecture of Cognition 1983 Cognitive Architectures
Anderson, J., Kline, P., and Beasley, C. A general learning theory and its application to schema abstraction 1979 Cognitive Science, Machine Learning
Anderson, J.R. Language, memory, and thought 1976 Nature of Intelligence, Natural Language
Anderson, J.R. On the merits of ACT and information-processing psychology: A response to Wexler's review 1980 Cognitive Science
Andreae, John H. STeLLA: A Scheme for a Learning Machine 1964 Machine Learning
Andrew, A.M. Learning machines 1959 Machine Learning
Aoki, M. Optimal control of partially observable Markov systems 1965 Representation & Reasoning
Appel, K. and Haken, W. Every planar map is four colorable: Part I: Discharging 1977 Representation & Reasoning
Appelt, D. Problem solving applied to natural language generation 1980 Discourse & Dialogue, Representation & Reasoning
Arbib, M.A. Rana Computatrix: an evolving model of visuo — coordination in frog and toad 1982 Physiology of Perception & Motion, Vision
Arbuthnot, J. Of the Laws of Chance 1692 Uncertainty
Armer, Paul Attitudes toward intelligent machines 1960 Ethics & Social Issues, History, Arguments Against AI
Arnauld, A. La logique, ou l'€™art de penser 1662 History, Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Ashby, W. Ross Principles of the Self-Organizing Dynamic System 1947 Nature of Intelligence, Machine Learning
Ashby, W. Ross Design for a Brain 1952 Goals & Visions