Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Russell, S. J., and D. Subramanian Provably bounded optimal agents 1995 Representation & Reasoning, Agents
Buchanan, Bruce G. The Role of Experimentation in Artificial Intelligence 1994 AI Overview
Kuipers, B. Commonsense Reasoning about Causality 1994 Representation & Reasoning, Commonsense Reasoning, Qualitative Reasoning, Representation & Reasoning, Commonsense Reasoning
Michie, D., D.J. Spiegelhalter, C.C. Taylor (eds) Machine Learning, Neural and Statistical Classification 1994 Machine Learning, Data Mining, Neural Networks, Statistical Learning Methods
Barwise, J. and Etchemendy, J. The Language of First-Order Logic: Including the Macintosh Program Tarski’s World 4 1993 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Berrou, C., Glavieux, A., and Thitimajshima, P. Near Shannon limit error control-correcting coding and decoding: Turbo-codes 1993
Bibel, W. Deduction: Automated Logic 1993 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Brown, David C. Intelligent Computer-Aided Design 1993 Applications, Architecture & Design, Engineering Design, Representation & Reasoning, Design
Brown, P. F., Della Pietra, S. A., Della Pietra, V. J., and Mercer, R. L. The mathematics of statistical machine translation: Parameter estimation 1993 Machine Translation
Charniak, E. Statistical Language Learning 1993
Colmerauer, A. and Roussel, P. The birth of Prolog 1993
Copeland, J. Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction 1993
Cox, I. A review of statistical data association techniques for motion correspondence 1993
Crawford, J. M. and Auton, L. D. Experimental results on the crossover point in satisfiability problems 1993
Dagum, P. and Luby, M. Approximating probabilistic inference in Bayesian belief networks is NP-hard 1993 Representation & Reasoning, Bayesian Inference
de Finetti, B. On the subjective meaning of probability 1993
Dean, T., Kaelbling, L. P., Kirman, J., and Nicholson, A. Planning with deadlines in stochastic domains 1993
Elkan, C. The paradoxical success of fuzzy logic 1993
Faugeras, O. Three-Dimensional Computer Vision: A Geometric Viewpoint 1993
Fikes, R. E. and Nilsson, N. J. STRIPS, a retrospective 1993 Robots, Robot Planning & Action
Forbus, K. D. and de Kleer, J. Building Problem Solvers 1993
Genesereth, M. R. and Nourbakhsh, I. Time-saving tips for problem solving with incomplete information 1993
Ginsberg, M. L. Essentials of Artificial Intelligence 1993
Gordon, N., Salmond, D. J., and Smith, A. F. M. Novel approach to nonlinear/non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation 1993 Representation & Reasoning, Bayesian Inference
Hobbs, J. R., Stickel, M. E., Appelt, D., and Martin, P. Interpretation as abduction 1993 Abductive Reasoning
Hwang, C.H. and Schubert, L. K. EL: A formal, yet natural, comprehensive knowledge representation 1993
Jones, N. D., Gomard, C. K., and Sestoft, P. Partial Evaluation and Automatic Program Generation 1993
Korf, R. E. Linear-space best-first search 1993
Lawler, E. L., Lenstra, J. K., Kan, A., and Shmoys, D. B. Sequencing and scheduling: Algorithms and complexity 1993
Li, M. and Vitanyi, P. M. B. An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications 1993
Luby, M., Sinclair, A., and Zuckerman, D. Optimal speedup of Las Vegas algorithms 1993
Mahanti, A. and Daniels, C. J. A SIMD approach to parallel heuristic search 1993
Marcus, M. P., Santorini, B., and Marcinkiewicz, M. A. Building a large annotated corpus of english: The penn treebank 1993
Mason, M. Kicking the sensing habit 1993
Maxwell, J. and Kaplan, R. The interface between phrasal and functional constraints 1993
McMillan, K. L. Symbolic Model Checking 1993
Mitchell, T.M., Utgoff, P.E., and Banerji, R.B. Learning Problem-Solving Heuristics by Experimentation 1993 Machine Learning
Moore, A. W. and Atkeson, C. G. Prioritized sweeping—Reinforcement learning with less data and less time 1993
Mostow, J., A. G. Hauptmann, L. L. Chase, and S. Roth Towards a Reading Coach that Listens: Automated Detection of Oral Reading Errors 1993 Education, Intelligent Tutoring, Speech, Speech Recognition
Nalwa, V. S. A Guided Tour of Computer Vision 1993
Nowick, S. M., Dean, M. E., Dill, D. L., and Horowitz, M. The design of a highperformance cache controller: A case study in asynchronous synthesis 1993
Olesen, K. G. Causal probabilistic networks with both discrete and continuous variables 1993
Peng, J. and Williams, R. J. Efficient learning and planning within the Dyna framework 1993
Pomerleau, Dean Neural Network Perception for Mobile Robot Guidance 1993
Poole, D. Probabilistic Horn abduction and Bayesian networks 1993
Poundstone, W. Prisoner'€™s Dilemma 1993 Games & Puzzles, Representation & Reasoning, Multi-Agent Systems
Prieditis, A. E. Machine discovery of effective admissible heuristics 1993
Prosser, P. Hybrid algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems 1993
Quinlan, J. R. C4.5 Programs for Machine Learning 1993 Decision Tree Learning
Quinlan, J. R. and Cameron-Jones, R. M. FOIL: A midterm report 1993 Machine Learning, Decision Tree Learning